Shell Exec Sheds Light on Building a Digital Business A leader at the oil-and-gas giant stresses the importance of responsibility in building a digital business. And in his current role at Shell, Bakshi is uniquely placed to evaluate how technologies such as IoT and artificial intelligence can influence the global economy. He is upbeat on the tangible benefits the technology offers at present but also stresses the importance of business leaders using such tools responsibly. The prospect of one company building a digital business can have a ripple effect on society at large.
Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: By about l A. Such territorially extensive states as the Han, Roman, Parthian, Mauryan, and Kushan empires may therefore be considered as constituting an institutionally adequate response to the novelties inherent in the urban transmutation that began about B.
It is noteworthy that similar state structures arose not just in the Old World but also in the New, beginning about years later. Amerindian social organization had indeed not passed beyond this level of organization at the time the Spaniards broke in upon the Aztec and Inca empires ofMexico and Peru, bringing them to an abrupt and catastrophic end.
The apparent convergence of patterns of development in mutually isolated regions of the earth suggests that the evolution from priestly to military-bureaucratic management was not simply accidental. Instead it seems plausible to believe that the intensified human interdependence that had been induced by urban [ ] The Commercial Transmutation specialization needed a protective carapace.
Bureaucratic command systems were the simplest way to meet that need, perpetuating into adulthood a childlike dependence on a superior's direction. My second major point was that, beginning about 1 A. Long-distance trade of this kind responded mainly to market price differentials.
Decisions and actions initiated by thousands of private persons affected the movement ofcaravans and ships-and determined what they would carry. Of course, such decisions were also affected by bureaucratic commands. Governments were always good customers-for some goods they were the only customers.
But insofar as trade moved across jurisdictional boundaries, the power of officials and rulers was checked by the unwillingness of merchants to buy or sell at prices that would not meet their costs and assure them a profit as well.
Official acts that violated this principlea compulsory purchase at less than market prices or outright confiscation-dried up trade very rapidly. The same applied to more local exchanges within a single state.
Thus, insofar as rulers and their officials fixed prices at less than market levels-a policy especially prevalent in the grain trade-they inhibited the development ofthe private sector ofthe economy and perpetuated the command principle whereby men acted not of their own free will but in obedience to orders coming from someone above them in the political-social hierarchy.
Civilized societies for the next thousand years exhibited an uneasy and fluctuating combination of command and marketregulated behavior, with neither principle unambiguously in [ ] The Human Condition the ascendant.
Clearly, in times and places where the market principle was at a minimum, human beings obeyed more readilyhaving no obvious alternative.
Yet when communication improved, for whatever reason, so that information about price differentials between here and there became available, the possibility of gain through private trading became apparent; and in proportion as that possibility was actually acted on so that mutually advantageous exchanges multiplied, resistance to unqualified obedience to official commands mounted.
In such circumstancescommands continued to be effective only where they reinforced and conformed to the price patterns established by private trade relations.
Always at the bottom ofsociety, the peasant majority continued to respond mainly to command. Rent and tax payments were imposed on them from above: To begin with, trade in agricultural products was an affair oflandlords, whose rents readily exceeded their capacity to consume food, making sale in exchange for imported rarities or city-made luxuries a very attractive proposition.
Town-based merchants thus found natural allies in landlords. Both classes sought to withdraw resources from the control of bureaucratic officials in order to maximize their personal wellbeing and standard ofliving. Officials, ofcourse, were often landlords or closely associated with landlords, with the result If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE, click 'Authenticate'.
You are not currently authenticated. View freely available titles:The Indian Lubricant Market: Survival of the Slickest Essay The Indian automotive lubricator market is the 6th largest market in the universe with grosss of about $ 1.
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