He was an aggressive and acquisitive monarch, asserting his rights over Toulouse, Brittany and Wales and leading to the invasion or Ireland as well.
As far as historians know, there was no contemporary term for the region under Angevin control; The angevin empire, descriptions such as "our kingdom and everything subject to our rule whatever it may be" were used.
The term Angevin itself is the demonym for the residents of Anjou and its historic capital, Angers ; the Plantagenets were descended from Geoffrey I, Count of Anjouhence the term. The area was a collection of the lands inherited and acquired by Henry, and so it is unclear whether these dominions shared any common identity and so should be labelled with the term Empire.
While the duchies and counties were held with various levels of vassalage to the king of France the Plantagenets held various levels of control over the Duchies of Brittany and Cornwall The angevin empire, the Welsh princedomsthe county of Toulouseand the Kingdom of Scotlandalthough those regions were not formal parts of the empire.
Auvergne was also in the empire for part of the reigns of Henry II and Richard, in their capacity as dukes of Aquitaine. Henry II and Richard I pushed further claims over the County of Berry but these were not completely fulfilled and the county was lost completely by the time of the accession of John in The frontiers of the empire were sometimes well known and therefore easy to mark, such as the dykes constructed between the royal demesne of the king of France and the Duchy of Normandy.
In other places these borders were not so clear, particularly the eastern border of Aquitaine, where there was often a difference between the frontier Henry IIand later Richard Iclaimed, and the frontier where their effective power ended.
This meant that, rather than the empire being controlled fully by the ruling monarch, he would delegate power to specially appointed subjects in different areas. British Isles[ edit ] England was under the firmest control of all the lands in the Angevin Empire, due to the age of many of the offices that governed the country and the traditions and customs that were in place.
England was divided in shires with sheriffs in each enforcing the common law. A justiciar was appointed by the king to stand in his absence when he was on the continent. As the kings of England were more often in France than England they used writs more frequently than the Anglo-Saxon kings, which actually proved beneficial to England.
This made it much harder for them to revolt against the king and defend all of their lands at once. Earls held a status similar to that of the continental countsbut there were no dukes at this time, only ducal titles that the kings of England held. Ireland was ruled by the Lord of Ireland who had a hard time imposing his rule at first.
It supplied the Plantagenets with infantry and longbowmen.
However, the constituent counties, such as Mainewere often administered by the officials of the local lords, rather than their Angevin suzerains. Maine was at first largely self-ruling and lacked administration until the Angevin kings made efforts to improve administration by installing new officials, such as the seneschal of Le Mans.
These reforms came too late for the Angevins however, and only the Capetians saw the beneficial effects of this reform after they annexed the area. Gascony was a very loosely administrated region.
Officials were stationed mostly in Entre-Deux-MersBayonneDaxbut some were found on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela and also on the river Garonne up to Agen.
The rest of Gascony was not administered, despite being such a large area compared to other smaller, well-administered provinces. Indeed, there were lords that ruled these regions as if they were "sovereign princes" and they had extra powers, such as the ability to mint their own coins, something English lords had been unable to do for decades.
Officials could be stationed in Poitouhowever, due to a large concentration of castles compared to the rest of Aquitaine.
Normandy was the most administrated state of the Angevin Empire after England.The Angevin Empire may have come about by a mixture of luck and calculation, but skill and respect for local custom were required for Henry II to preserve it intact.
Angevin empire: Angevin empire,, the territories, extending in the latter part of the 12th century from Scotland to the Pyrenees, that were ruled by the English king Henry II and his immediate successors, Richard I and John; they were called the Angevin kings because Henry’s father was .
The term Angevin Empire is a modern term describing the collection of states once ruled by the Angevins of the House of Plantagenet. The Plantagenets ruled over an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland during the 12th and early 13th centuries, located north of the kingdoms of Navarre and.
The Angevin Empire, at last, was no more, and Philip assumed his place as the preeminent Lord of France. However, its legacy and its troubles remained. The Angevin Empire, Vol. 3: Or the Three Reigns of Henry II, Richard I, and John (A. D. ) (Classic Reprint) Mar 22, by James Ramsay.
Hardcover. $ $ . Angevin empire, the territories, extending in the latter part of the 12th century from Scotland to the Pyrenees, that were ruled by the English king Henry II and his immediate successors, Richard I and John; they were called the Angevin kings because Henry’s father was count of Anjou.