The Dutch established a patroon system with feudal-like rights given to a few powerful landholders; they also established religious tolerance and free trade. The colony's capital of New Amsterdam was founded in and located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattanwhich grew to become a major world city.
Subsequently, the major sea powers in Europe sent expeditions to the New World to build trade networks and colonies and to convert the native peoples to Christianity.
Spain concentrated on building its empire on the central and southern parts of the Americas allotted to it by the Treaty of Tordesillasbecause of presence of large, settled societies like the Aztecthe Incathe Maya and the Muiscawhose human and material resources it could exploit, and large concentrations of silver and gold.
The Portuguese built their empire in Brazilwhich fell in their sphere of influence owing to the Treaty of Tordesillasby developing the land for sugar production since there was a lack of a large, complex society or mineral resources.
During the European colonization of the western hemisphere, most of the native population died, mainly by disease. In what has come to be known as the Columbian exchangediseases such as smallpox and measles decimated populations with no immunity. The conquerors and colonists of Latin America also had a major impact on the population of Latin America.
The Spanish conquistadors committed savage acts of violence against the natives. Las Casas claimed that the Spaniards made the natives work day and night in mines and would "test the sharpness of their blades"  on the natives.
Las Casas estimated that around three million natives died from war, slavery, and overworking. When talking about the cruelty, Las Casas said "Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it.
The Spanish even went as far as burning the Maya Codices like books. These codices contained information about astrology, religion, Gods, and rituals.
Colonial-era Religion[ edit ] Traveling to the New World[ edit ] The Spanish Crown regulated immigration to its overseas colonies, with travelers required to register with the House of Trade in Seville. The ability to regulate the flow of people enabled the Spanish Crown to keep a grip on the religious purity of its overseas empire.
The Spanish Crown was rigorous in their attempt to allow only Christians passage to the New World and required proof of religion by way of personal testimonies.
Specific examples of individuals dealing with the Crown allow for an understanding of how religion affected passage into the New World.
Francisca de Figueroa, an African-Iberian woman seeking entrance into the Americas, petitioned the Spanish Crown in in order to gain a license to sail to Cartagena. I order you to allow passage to the Province of Cartagena for Francisca de Figueroa Individuals had to work within the guidelines of Christianity in order to appeal to the Crown and be granted access to travel.
Religion in Latin America[ edit ] Once in the New World, religion was still a prevalent issue which had to be considered in everyday life.
Many of the laws were based in religious beliefs and traditions and often these laws clashed with the many other cultures throughout colonial Latin America.
One of the central clashes was between African and Iberian cultures; this difference in culture resulted in the aggressive prosecution of witches, both African and Iberian, throughout Latin America.
A specific example, the trial of Paula de Eguiluzshows how an appeal to Christianity can help to lessen punishment even in the case of a witch trial. Paula de Eguiluz was a woman of African descent who was born in Santo Domingo and grew up as a slave, sometime in her youth she learned the trade of witches and was publicly known to be a sorceress.
There needed to be appeals to Christianity and announcements of faith if an individual hoped to lessen the sentence. Finally, in the third hearing of the trial Paula ended her testimony by "ask[ing] Our Lord to forgive [me] for these dreadful sins and errors and requests The Spanish Crown placed a high importance on the preservation of Christianity in Latin America, this preservation of Christianity allowed colonialism to rule Latin America for over three hundred years.
Latin American wars of independence Countries in Latin America by date of independence Following the model of the American and French revolutions, most of Latin America achieved its independence by Independence destroyed the old common market that existed under the Spanish Empire after the Bourbon Reforms and created an increased dependence on the financial investment provided by nations which had already begun to industrialize ; therefore, Western European powers, in particular Great Britain and France, and the United States began to play major roles, since the region became economically dependent on these nations.
Independence also created a new, self-consciously "Latin American" ruling class and intelligentsia which at times avoided Spanish and Portuguese models in their quest to reshape their societies.
This elite looked towards other Catholic European models—in particular France—for a new Latin American culture, but did not seek input from indigenous peoples. The failed efforts in Spanish America to keep together most of the initial large states that emerged from independence— Gran Colombiathe Federal Republic of Central America  and the United Provinces of South America —resulted a number of domestic and interstate conflicts, which plagued the new countries.
Brazil, in contrast to its Hispanic neighbors, remained a united monarchy and avoided the problem of civil and interstate wars. Domestic wars were often fights between federalists and centrists who ended up asserted themselves through the military repression of their opponents at the expense of civilian political life.
The new nations inherited the cultural diversity of the colonial era and strived to create a new identity based around the shared European Spanish or Portuguese language and culture. Within each country, however, there were cultural and class divisions that created tension and hurt national unity.
Map of disputed territories in Latin America For the next few decades there was a long process to create a sense of nationality. Most of the new national borders were created around the often centuries-old audiencia jurisdictions or the Bourbon intendancieswhich had become areas of political identity.
In many areas the borders were unstable, since the new states fought wars with each other to gain access to resources, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The more important conflicts were the Paraguayan War —70; also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the War of the Pacific — As a result, Paraguay suffered a demographic collapse: Chile gained control of saltpeter -rich areas, previously controlled by Peru and Bolivia, and Bolivia became a land-locked nation.
By mid-century the region also confronted a growing United States, seeking to expand on the North American continent and extend its influence in the hemisphere. In the s France attempted to indirectly control Mexico.Students search the classroom for hidden colonial America fact cards.
They use the information on the cards to answer the questions on the question sheet. Colonial Americans had many different jobs. Tell what each person does for a living. Jobs include wheelwright, blacksmith, miller, milliner. Development economics is easy to characterize as one of the three major subfields of economics, along with microeconomics and macroeconomics.
More specifically, development economics resembles economic history in that it seeks to explain the changes that occur in economic systems over time. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The American Revolution (–) Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
Colonial Web Sites. Do History: Martha Ballard DoHistory invites you to explore the process of piecing together the lives of ordinary people in the past. The term "Latin America" primarily refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in the New ashio-midori.com the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the region was home to many indigenous peoples, a number of which had advanced civilizations, most notably from North to South; the Olmec, Maya, Muisca .
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