At its height of development, Spanish Florida included the coastal regions of Georgia and southern South Carolina. A second was into central Mexico and then northward to what today is the northern tier of the Mexican states and California, Arizona, New Mexicoand Texas in the United States. From Mexico and the Caribbean, the Spanish moved into Central Americawhich in turn served as a base of operations for the conquest of Peru.
Visit Website But between and a series of interconnected developments occurred in Europe that provided the impetus for the exploration and subsequent colonization of America.
These developments included the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Renaissance, the unification of small states into larger ones with centralized political power, the emergence of new technology in navigation and shipbuilding, and the establishment of overland trade with the East and the accompanying transformation of the medieval economy.
Protestantism emphasized a personal relationship between each individual and God without the need for intercession by the institutional church. Thus, the rise of Protestantism and the Counter-Reformation, along with the Renaissance, helped foster individualism and create a climate favorable to exploration.
At the same time, political centralization ended much of the squabbling and fighting among rival noble families and regions that had characterized the Middle Ages. With the decline of the political power and wealth of the Catholic church, a few rulers gradually solidified their power.
Portugal, Spain, France, and England were transformed from small territories into nation-states with centralized authority in the hands of monarchs who were able to direct and finance overseas exploration.
As these religious and political changes were occurring, technological innovations in navigation set the stage for exploration. Bigger, faster ships and the invention of navigational devices such as the astrolabe and sextant made extended voyages possible.
But the most powerful inducement to exploration was trade. The Orient became a magnet to traders, and exotic products and wealth flowed into Europe. Those who benefited most were merchants who sat astride the great overland trade routes, especially the merchants of the Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice, and Florence.
The newly unified states of the Atlantic—France, Spain, England, and Portugal—and their ambitious monarchs were envious of the merchants and princes who dominated the land routes to the East. The desire to supplant the trade moguls, especially the Italians, and fear of the Ottoman Empire forced the Atlantic nations to search for a new route to the East.
Portugal Portugal led the others into exploration. Encouraged by Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese seamen sailed southward along the African coast, seeking a water route to the East.
They were also looking for a legendary king named Prester John who had supposedly built a Christian stronghold somewhere in northwestern Africa. Henry hoped to form an alliance with Prester John to fight the Muslims.
His school developed the quadrant, the cross-staff, and the compass, made advances in cartography, and designed and built highly maneuverable little ships known as caravels.
Dias sailed around the tip of Africa and into the Indian Ocean before his frightened crew forced him to give up the quest.
A year later, Vasco da Gama succeeded in reaching India and returned to Portugal laden with jewels and spices. Born in Genoa, Italy, aroundColumbus learned the art of navigation on voyages in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.Spain and Portugal in the New World, was first published in Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.
Spanish and Portuguese expansion. Christianity and Colonial Expansion in the AmericasSpain was the first European country to colonize what today is North and South America, and the Spanish approach to the region came from several directions. HISTORY OF THE SPANISH EMPIRE 15th - 18th This situation changes abruptly in the 16th century, when Spain and Portugal become the pioneers in a new era of colonization.
Thereafter the speed of Spanish expansion and consolidation over a vast region is astonishing. A Short History of Spain and Portugal Chapter 1. The Iberian Peninsula in pre-Roman Times: Iberians: Celts: Carthaginians.
3 Chapter 2. Roman Hispania and Lucitania. Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive in the Americas in This sailor from Genoa (now part of Italy) was funded by the Spanish king and queen.
He landed in the Bahamas, a small group of islands in the Caribbean and claimed the land for Spain. The Iberian Golden Age European Expansion: Exploration And Colonization, Author: Allen Pikerman Date: in England, France, Spain, and Portugal.
In Eurasia, developing navigational technology, along with expanding trade, encouraged long sea voyages by Arabs, A project by History World International.